Taste & Smell

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Retiotopy, Tonotopy, the Smell and Taste systems do not have this at all. Even the classic Path is not respected (especially the olfactory one) We can do without them quite easily (pex peaople with loss of olfactory system.

Humans have about 40 mio receptor cells (olafctory)

http://www.independent.co.uk/life-style/health-and-families/health-news/british-doctors-on-brink-of-cure-for-paralysis-9807010.html

Papillae

Papilae contain a number of Taste buds and each taste bud contains a bunch of taste cells microvili are tued to specific molecules And trigger Signals Papillae—each one has several hundred taste buds—each having 50-150 receptor cells An average person has 2000-5000 taste buds, although super-tasters have as many as 20,000. and then there are the sorry bunch who only have 500

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There are People who have much more Tastebuds (up to 20'000) somho you can train it but maily it's probably genetic.

Olfactory and Taste cells are well known for beeing cells that regenerate very well.

The Tastebuds dont just erespond to one single Taste, the react to many tastes but differently to all of them.

Folie6 Chemical changes that different Materials have on the Receprtors and what hcanges inside the cell (whole reaction, will not be asked in detail) We need to understand the cascade (but don't need to know it off by heart)

Cranieal Nervs (Vagus glossopharyngeus etc) Nerves above neck.

Flavour is not only a combination of semell and taste but also the satiety, color etc. change the flavour of something really strong.

  • The color, texture, aroma, expectations, temperature, and satiety all play a role in the perception of taste along with the direct activation of the primary tastes
  • Smell and taste are us. Secondary to visual capture
  • Ill-colored food tastes, “just not right”
  • Lumpy mashed potatoes, soggy bacon, celery, or carrots, smoothness of grapes
  • Lack of smell make it difficult to distinguish a bite of an apple vs. an onion

In some pharmacies you can buy some herbs that block particular receptors which makes food taste different. (Magic Fruit, makes everything that tastes sour really sweet)

Capsaicin

Can Damage the Tissue, is what makes spicy food.

Smell

We can smell and differentiate between several hundred thousand substances, only about 20% are pleasant and only ~ 16-20 are identifiable (you know that you know waht it is but you cant name it, but you're very good at tellign them apart)

Anosmia - odour blindness

Women are slightly better in identifiying and detecting odours

There is no direct projection between mitral cells to the thalamus

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Projections to many regions, inclunding Thalamus. If you have a shock in youtr head and the Brain moves inside the skull, the movement rips the Fibers throug thre cribriform plate (happens pretty often in accidents)

Mucus covers the epithelium and provides moisture and removes Bacteria

Transduction

Very similar, just in the cilia

Piriform cortex

here to detect odours orbitofrontal recognizes smell and the limbic system attaches emotiona and meaning to it.

Pheromones

Airborne chemicals released from animals that have a physiological or behavioral effect on another. Are detected by an organ, the VMO Vomeronasal organ, which is linked to the Thalamus. Researchers are finding evindece that mamals also have a pheremone-response.

There are many Products which are sold to work like pheromones and affect others.

McClintock Effect

synchronization of menstrual cycles in women who live together. Effect is very doubtful, probably not true http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Menstrual_synchrony

Phereomone

Folie19

Synthesia

The capacity to join sensory experiences across sensory modalities. 1:25'000 has synesthesia. Nabokov is a very famous (synetshes music with colour) Many peaople have Number-color synestesia. There is a genetivc component but it's not yet clear exactly how it works

Popout reaction stays same with color if you just use two colours if you have no pop-out (l and t's ) you have to do a serial search, the reactiojn time grows with a growing number of items. If you do it with numbers and synesthetes "normal" people do a serial search, for synesthetes its a pop-out effect. (scientific proof that it's not made up, but a different way to percieve it) DOesnt interfere with real perception, it's just connections, an additional impression

Number synesthesia is not two different senses, but we do have areas in brain which recognize numbers visually It's thougtht that connections are there to begin with but disappear in normal peaople, but stay in synesthetes.